TA&MUSGL

Environmentally Friendly Drilling Systems

 

Bayesian Networks

 

A Bayesian Network is a graphical structure that allows us to represent and reason about an uncertain domain. The nodes in a Bayesian Network represent a set of random variables (discrete or continuous) from the domain and the connection between them represents the direct dependencies between variables. Assuming discrete variables, the strength of the relationship between variables is quantified by conditional probability distributions associated with each node. (Korb & Nicholson, 2003)


The process of conditioning (also called probability propagation or inference or believe updating) is performed via a “flow of information” through the network (Korb and Nicholson, 2003) . This inference can be done in Prognosis, where the information is propagated from the evidence at the top, evaluating several initial conditions, to the query at the bottom of a model as a resulting scenario given those circumstances, and vice versa, setting a resulting condition at the bottom of the model and back propagating the information to obtain the initial conditions that generated such output, in a process known as Diagnosis.

The Bayes theorem represents the most elemental description of the probabilistic inference. It is defined as the normalized conditional probability between a hypothesis H and the evidence E, given that P(H) is not 0 and P(E) is not 0, to assess the posterior probability of H given E.

BNEq

 

System Selection

 

One of the current goals of the petroleum industry is to minimize the environmental impact during drilling operations, since an effective management of the environment has proven to lead to a greater access of reserves in environmentally sensitive areas currently off-limits (Rogers et al. 2006). For this purpose, to reduce the environmental impact during drilling operations, a number of Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) technologies have recently emerged, but these have not been integrated into a decision-making system capable of combining them to define an optimal drilling system for the specific conditions of a given site. In practice, the major challenge is to select the best combination of EFD technologies for a site because there are many possible technology combinations and many different competing evaluation criteria. (EFDS, 2010)


This technologies are evaluated through the implementation of an algorithm based on a combination of multi-attribute utility theory and the exhaustive enumeration of all possible technology combinations, as a way to provide a quantitative rationale to select the best set of systems for a given site (herein, a system is defined as a set of technologies). The aim of this approach was to help decision-makers select an optimal drilling system for a specific site by minimizing the environmental impact, by maximizing profit, and by accounting for perceptions and safety (O.-Y. Yu, SPE; Z. Medina-Cetina, 2010).


 The System Selection approach includes five main subsystems identified as 1. Site and Rig, 2. Power, 3. Operation, 4. Restorationand 5. Societal, which can be derived in more than 110 technologies.

 

1. Site and Rig

1.1 Well Design

 

Multiple Directional Drilling: multiple directional drilling allows for drilling to occur in a non-vertical direction, in various angles of direction. Multiple directional drilling also allows for multiple wells to be drilled from the same vertical wellbore, minimizing the environmental impact of the well.   multidirectionaldrilling

Directional Drilling

(http://www.rigzone.com/training/insight.asp?insight_id=295&c_id=1)

 

Multiple Horizontal Drilling: multiple horizontal drilling allows for drilling occurring in a horizontal direction and also enables for multiple wells to be drilled from the same wellbore. Horizontal drilling is any wellbore that exceeds 80 degrees. Horizontal drilling is known to drastically increase production.

 

Single Directional Drilling: directional drilling allows for drilling to occur in a non-vertical direction.

Single Horizontal Drilling: horizontal drilling is any wellbore that exceeds 80 degrees and is known to drastically increase production of oil and gas.

Vertical Drilling: is a well that is only capable of drilling straight down.

 

horizdrilling

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   
vertandhorizdrilling
Vertical and Horizontal Drilling
(http://web.me.com/selbu/bakken/Tech_Stuff.html)

 

1.2. Rig Type

 

Barge Rigs: platforms designed for deep shelf drilling application in shallow water (7-18 ft), sometimes used as a base for servicing other structures such as offshore wind turbines and long bridges.   bargeRig

 

Casing Drilling Rig: steel pipe placed in an oil or gas well to prevent the wall of the hole from caving in, to prevent movement of fluids from one formation to another and to aid in well control.   casingDrilling

 

Coiled Tubing Rig:  a continuous string of flexible steel tubing, often hundreds or thousands of feet long, that is wound onto a reel, often dozens of feet in diameter. The reel is an integral part of the coiled tubing unit, which consists of several devices that ensure the tubing can be safely and efficiently inserted into the well from the surface. Also called reeled tubing. Is used for underbalanced applications due to its well control system. Coiled tubing rig have a smaller footprint and weight and is a popular rig to use for drilling for natural gas.   coilTubingRig

 

Flex Rig: these custom build automated rigs can quickly drill up to 22 wells from the same pad.  The skid system allows rig movement in all directions without disassembling the rig. Drilling wells per day is significantly reduced and automated features improve safety of handling operations (“No touch” pipe handling). Fewer roads result in less vehicle traffic, consolidated operations reduce land use and AC electric rig is quieter, more fuel efficient.   flexrig

 

Ideal Rig: platform with a portable hydraulic system connected to raise both the mast and substructure (without the need for generator power).  With the substructure in the lowered position, the mast is pinned to the middle drill floor section. With the mast in the vertical position and the raising cylinders still in place, mast support legs are swung out and pinned to the floor. The mast raising cylinders are then disconnected and retracted. With the mast secured in the vertical position, telescoping hydraulic cylinders raise the drillfloor. Telescoping braces prevent the substructure legs from rotating past vertical. These braces are extended when the floor is at ground level and retract as the substructure rises. Once completely raised, the braces are bottom-out and are secured with pins. Is a drilling system designed for the North American land rig market. The rig features a modular mud system and a drawworks disk brake system that provides maximum control, enabling a smaller footprint of 129 feet by 306 feet.   idealrig

 

LOC250 (CWD): a containerized, 250-ton hook-load land and offshore rig, designed for casing-while-drilling (CWD) technology to reduce the costs and environmental impact of drilling a well. In CWD, a well is drilled using standard oilfield casing instead of drill pipe. This enables the operator to simultaneously drill and case a well. Drill bits and other tools can be lowered inside the casing to the bottom of the hole on a wire line, where they are latched to the last joint of casing, while mud circulation continues. Retrieval of the bits and the tools occurs the same way. The CWD process eliminates tripping and its associated blowout risks.   drillingpanel

 

Rapid Rig:  a “singles” land rig delivering high speed, safety and performance in a compact, road legal drilling package. Developed with a 250 ton hook load capacity for shallow to moderate well depths, the Rapid Rig's smaller size and self deploying design allows for ease of transport and faster onsite rig-up. The fully automated rig floor coupled with an innovative pipe handling system reduces crew size and accident exposure while providing a more comfortable, efficient work environment. Has the pipe handling capability to rapidly pick up/lay down, make up/break out drill pipe and run casing and to mobilize/demobilize in approximately eight hours. The Rapid rig can be moved by 16 highway transport loads and has a smaller footprint of 185 feet by 98 feet.   rapidrig

 

Traditional Older Vintage Rig: are vintage rigs that were designed and constructed in the 1950s. These rigs have low mobility capabilities and it is laborious, time-consuming, dangerous, and costly to move.

 

   
Trailer/Truck Mounted Rig: The heavy-duty trailer or truck is equipped with some desert tires and large-span axles to improve the move ability and the cross-country performance. A high transmission efficiency and performance reliability can be maintained by a smart assembly and a utilization of two CAT 3408 diesels and ALLISON hydraulic transmission box. The drawworks is double-drum type, with which the hydraulic disc brake is equipped as main brake and air water-cooling disc brake The derrick which is front-open type and has two –section structure with an inclination angle or erective sections can be lifted up or fallen down and telescoped. The substructure has a parallelogram integral structure for easy transportation and installation, which can be risen by 6 setbacks spirally. This kind of drilling rigs with desert adaptability design also have good anti-dust and high/low-temperature-proof performances. Safety and inspection measures are strengthened under the guidance of the design concept of "Humanism Above All" to meet the requirements of HSE.   trailertruckrig1
    trailertruckrig2
Trailer Mounted Rig/Trailer Mounted Rig in operation
(http://www.worldoils.com/landrigs/rig289.php)

 

 

1.3. Transportation

 

Conventional Diesel Truck: a type of vehicle that is fueled by diesel. A diesel engine is a type of internal-combustion engine where the ignition is brought about by heat resulting from air compression. They operate at high compression ratios and convert a large percentage of the fuel's available energy into usable work. Diesel engines' higher fuel efficiency generally lowers the carbon dioxide emissions that contribute to the greenhouse effect.   dieseltruck
Conventional Diesel Truck/with or without noise suppressor.
(http://sciencebusiness.technewslit.com/?p=967)

 

Low Sulphur Diesel Truck: a type of diesel truck that is fueled by diesel fuel with substantially lowered sulfur contents. The lowered sulfur content in the diesel reduces the emissions of particulate matter from diesel engines. Diesel trucks with tier III engines are required to meet emission standards set by the EPA concerning NMHC + NOx.   cleandeasel
Low Sulphur Diesel Truck device/with or without noise suppressor/with or without Tier III engine
(http://auto.howstuffworks.com/fuel-efficiency/alternative-fuels/how-clean-diesel-fuel-works1.htm)

 

Helicopter: a helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by one or more engine driven rotors. This allows helicopters to take off and land vertically along, to hover, and to fly forwards, backwards, and laterally. The source of helicopter noise comes from the rotor, the engine, and the transmission. The thickness of the rotor blades, the loading noise, the blade-vortex interaction (BVI), the broadband noise, the high-speed impulsive (HSI) noise, and tail rotor noise all contribute to the noise that helicopters produce. The placement, design and removal of the tail-rotor can all reduce the amount of noise that results from the helicopter.  

 

Hovercraft:  a hovercraft, also known as air-cushioned vehicles, operates by using fans to push air under the vehicle and trap that air with a skirt.  The hovercraft is lifted above the ground and the skirt of the hovercraft is primarily the only part of the vehicle that is in contact with the ground. The amphibious vehicle can travel over water, land, ice, snow, and swamps and is considered to be a transportation mode that will not permanently harm the ecology of the area it travels. An adverse effect of hovercraft transportation is the noise pollution that hovercrafts produce. A noise suppressor can be added to reduce the noise level of the hovercraft to a noise level that is produced by a typical truck or bus.   hovercraft

 

Mattracks: is a patented track system that can convert a typical wheeled vehicle to a tracked vehicle. Mattracks reduce the ground pressure of a wheeled vehicle and can effectively travel through snow, slush, mud, sand, swamps and tundra conditions.

  matracks

 

Rolligon:  Rolligon vehicles are used to transport heavy loads, personnel, products, or equipment in sensitive areas. Rolligon vehicles consist of low-pressure, high-flotation tires that distribute the weight over a large area with a ground pressure of approximately 4 psi or less. Rolligon vehicles can operated in soft ground conditions, extremely rugged terrain or environmental conditions that are too harsh or sensitive for conventional trucks.   Rolligon
Rolligon/with or without noise suppressor.
(http://www.nov.com/Brands/Rolligon/Rolligon_8X8_Model_Brute.aspx)

 

 

1.4. Access Road

 

Board Road:  is a temporary road system constructed out of boards.   boardroad

 

Bridge Deck:  consist of the decking of a timber bridge and are best used to cross small wetlands.   bridgedeck

 

Cable and wood

   

 

Corduroy Crossings: are built from residues such as brush or slash; small, low-value logs; or mill slabs. Corduroy spreads a load over the length of the log or slab, increasing the load-bearing area.   corduroycrossing

 

DURA BASE Composite Mat:  is a new interlocking mat that is constructed from high-density polyethylene. DURA-BASE is used for temporary road systems and construction platforms placed over soft soils and environmentally sensitive areas.   durabase

 

Expanded Metal Grating: is made from non-galvanized steel. This light and inexpensive technology provides good traction and can be used to build crossings by placing grating sections in the wheel path.   metalgrading

 

Gravel Road: is a road system paved with gravel.   gravelroad

 

HexaDeck: is a portable roadway and heavy-duty flooring system. HexaDeck can be used to create permanent or temporary road systems for vehicles, equipment, and pedestrians. HexaDeck consists of interlocking hexagonal tiles that result in a very durable pathway for multi-uses.   hexadeck

 

Pole Rail Crossing: can be built on site from straight hardwood poles cut from local trees. They are laid parallel to the direction of travel below each wheel.

 

PVC or HDPE Pipe Mats: are constructed by cabling together pipes to form mats of varying length.

  PVCmat

 

Recycled Drill Cutting Road Base    

 

Roll-out Road

   

 

Roverdeck: is a lightweight roll out roadway system that can be rapidly deployed for vehicle access over sand, dirt, and mud. This system can be used for environmentally sensitive areas as well.

   
Tire Mats:  are constructed by interconnecting tire sidewalls and its dimensions can be modified to fit the soil and the situation.   tiermat1

 

Wood Mats: are made from logs or sawn hardwood and the individual pieces are cabled together to make a single-layer crossing.   woodmats

 

Wood Panels: are stronger, larger versions of shipping pallets. They are reversible and easier to repair.

   

 

 

1.5. Site Preparation

Once the drill site has been selected and surveyed, a contractor or contractors will move in with equipment to prepare the location. If necessary, the site will be cleared and leveled. A large pit will be constructed to contain water for drilling operations and for the disposal of drill cuttings and other waste. A small drilling rig, referred to as a dry hole differ, will be used to start the main hole.

 

Aluminum Modules and Drilled Shaft: an aluminum module is an independent unit that serves a specific function and is combined with other modules to complete a modular design. Drilled shafts are deep foundation elements that can be used to support rig structures. Drilled shafts, also known as, cast-in-drilled hole (CIDH) piles, caissons, drilled piers or bored piles are used for deep foundation solutions to high axial and/or lateral loads challenges.   drilledshaft

 

Aluminum Modules and Driven Piles: an aluminum module is an independent unit that serves a specific function and is combined with other modules to complete a modular design. Driven piles are structural columns driven into the soil for the transfer of loads through weak soil layers to a suitable bearing layer of soil or rock. They are suitable foundations for all types of land-based and marine-based structures. Their choice over other deep foundation methods is a matter of economic and site-specific factors.   dfivenpilesprocedure

 

Aluminum Modules and Spread Footing: An aluminum module is an independent unit that serves a specific function and is combined with other modules to complete a modular design. Spread footing is a wide shallow footing usually consisting of strips or pads of reinforced concrete or other materials which transfer the loads from walls and columns to the soil or bedrock.
  aluminumspreadfooting

 

Board Location

   

 

Caliche: is a sedimentary rock, a hardened deposit of calcium carbonate. This calcium carbonate cements together other materials, including gravel, sand, clay, and silt.   calicheoutcrop

 

Cement Pad:  is a square or rectangular slab consisting of hardened cement.   cementpad

 

Compacted Fill Material:  typically consists of compacted subsoil, free of organic matter, used to fill a depression or hole, or used to create a mound, changing the grade or elevation of the real site.

   

 

Compacted Native Material:  is the soil or dirt material native to the site that is compacted to create a durable foundation.

   

 

DURA BASE Composite Mat:  is a new interlocking mat that is constructed from high-density polyethylene. DURA-BASE is used for temporary road systems and construction platforms placed over soft soils and environmentally sensitive areas.

   

 

Gravel Pad:  is a temporary foundation slab consisting of gravel as a method to reduce the environmental impact of drills on the surrounding area.   gravelpad

 

Ice Pad (Arctic): is an alternative temporary drilling foundation constructed out of pads of ice used as a method to minimize the ecological footprint of drill sites.  Ice pads are only applicable in the Arctic and Alaskan regions.   icepad

 

Just Level Out:  is a method that consists of just leveling out the land where the site is located.    

 

Multiple well pad < 10 ft. well spacing: consist of multiple drills on one site pad, each drill spaced less than ten feet apart.

   

 

Multiple well pad 10-20 ft. well spacing: consist of multiple drills on one site pad, each drill spaced between ten to twenty feet apart.

  multiwellpad

 

Piling:  is a column of wood, steel, or concrete that is driven into the ground to provide support for a structure.   multiplewellpad

 

Recycle drill cuttings: is soil material removed from the earth during the drilling process that is reused for other purposes.

   

 

 

1.6. Noise Reduction Facility

 

Construct buildings: in order to minimize the noise pollution at the drilling site, it is proposed that buildings are constructed on the site to act as a sound barrier.

   

 

Construct walls: in order to minimize the noise pollution at the drilling site, it is proposed that walls are constructed on the site to act as a sound barrier.

   

 

 

 

2. Power

2.1. Conventional Power

 

Internal Combustion Engine: an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (normally a fossil fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and -pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine, such as pistones, turbine blades or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, generating useful mechanical energy. This engine can be evaluated with or without noise suppressor.   internalcombustionmechanism
Internal Combustion Engine Mechanism
(http://www.merriam-webster.com/concise-images/72180.htm)

 

Engine with SCR: Selective Catalytic Reduction technology is the only vehicle emissions control technology that has been proven to be capable of meeting New Emissions Control Standards (EPA). In heavy-duty trucks, SCR will reduce NOx emissions up to 90%, Hydro carbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions by 50–90%and Particulate matter (PM) emissions by 30–50%. When the EPA 2010 emissions standards take effect, no heavy-duty diesel engine can be emitting levels of nitrogen oxide (NOx) higher than 0.2 g/bhp-hr (grams per brake horsepower-hour), a standard more stringent than any in place in Europe. This technology can be added with or without noise suppressor.   EPAemissionregulations2010

 

Large Scale Utility Turbines: this technology range from several hundred kilowatts to several hundred megawatts. Air is pulled through rotating and fixed blades in the compression turbine, raising both the pressure and temperature of the air. The compressed air is then forced into a combustion chamber where fuel is injected and ignited. Hot gases exiting the combustion chamber expand across rotating and fixed blades in the power turbines. This device can be evaluated with or without noise suppressor.   utilityturbine

 

Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines: a lean-burn natural gas engine is an internal combustion engine that is fueled by a mixture of natural gas and excess air. The excess air reduces the temperature of the combustion process and reduces the amount of nitrogen oxides by nearly half, compared to the conventional natural gas engine. With the excess oxygen available, the combustion process is more efficient and more power is produced from the same amount of fuel. This engine can be evaluated with or without noise suppressor.   leanburngenerator

 

 

2.2. Fuel Type

 

Bi-fuel system concept: a bi-fuel engine is a diesel engine that operates on gaseous fuels while maintaining some liquid fuel injection to provide a deliberate source for ignition.    

 

Biodiesel: biodiesel is a clean-burning alternative fuel, produced from domestic, renewable resources.

   

 

Conventional diesel

   

 

Low sulfur diesel: low sulfur diesel is classified as diesel with substantially lowered sulfur contents.

   

 

Synthetic fuels: synthetic fuel is any liquid fuel obtained from coal or from natural gas. It can sometimes refer to fuels derived from other solids such as oil shale, tar sand, waste plastics, or from the fermentation of biomatter.

   

 

Bio-gas: bio-gas typically refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas originated from biogenic material and is a type of biofuel.

   

 

Natural gas: natural gas is a gas consisting primarily of methane. It is found associated with other fossil fuels, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs and landfills. It is an important fuel source, a major feedstock for fertilizers, and a potent greenhouse gas.

   

 

 

2.3. Unconventional Power

 

Electric Power from Grid: using the electric power from grid sectors to power the rigs.   electricgridd

 

Fuel Cells: fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert chemical energy in fuels into electrical energy directly, thereby promising power generation with high efficiency and low environmental impact.   fuelcell

 

Photovoltaic:  photovoltaic is a cell containing material that converts solar radiation into direct current electricity.   photovoltaic
Photovoltaic Panels
(http://usgreenenergycenter.com/)

 

Wind Turbines: a wind turbine is a rotating machine that converts the energy of wind into kinetic energy, which is then converted into electricity.   windturbines

 

 

2.4. Energy Storage

 

Battery: a battery is a combination go electrochemical cells used to convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. There are many battery technologies currently in use or being developed, including: lead-acid, nickel cadmium, and nickel metal hydride. Batteries run on a limited number of charge/discharge cycle through a process of chemical reactions. Batteries have a limited life cycle with a degrading performance and eventually become hazardous to the environment.   leadacidbattery

 

Capacitor Banks: capacitor banks are capable of holding DC voltages for extended periods of time. They are capable of being charged and discharged an almost unlimited number of times and they have very long lifetimes, which reduced maintenance costs.   cPcitorbank

 

Electrolysis to Hydrogen for Energy Storage: electrolysis of water into its components of hydrogen and oxygen can be considered an energy storage system since the hydrogen and oxygen can be stored for an extended time and then used in an engine or fuel cell to generate power on demand.    
Flywheels: high-speed flywheel systems are promising energy storage means for systems. Flywheels store kinetic energy in a high-speed rotor which can then be coupled with an electric machine to create a mechanical battery.   flywheels
    flywheelssystem

 

 

3. Operation

3.1. Drilling Technology

 

Conventional Overbalanced Drilling: Conventional overbalanced drilling is a drilling condition where the drilling fluid selected provides a pressure gradient greater than the anticipated formation pressure. Noise suppressor can be added to this technology.

Underbalanced Drilling: Underbalanced drilling is a procedure used to drill oil and gas wells where the pressure in the wellbore is kept lower that the fluid pressure in the formation being drilled. Underbalanced drilling eliminates formation damage, increases the rate of penetration, reduces lost circulation, and eliminates differential sticking. The Under Balanced Drilling (UBD) technology has been used to avoid negative effects such as fluid losses and formation damage. However, the under balanced drilling service is very expensive (about 500.000 US$/well) and the operations are more complex and riskier than those using conventional drilling fluids.

 

  balanced_underbalanced
Balanced Vs. Overbalanced Drilling System
(http://nwairservices.100wd.net/services_underbalanced.php)

 


Gases used for underbalance include air, nitrogen and natural gas. Although it is not typical, if natural gas is recovered from the well, it can be reinjected into the well to establish underbalance, resulting in the most cost-effective solution for underbalanced drilling.

Commonly used in underbalance operations, nitrogen is preferred for its somewhat low cost of generation, scale of control and minimal potential for downhole fires. While pure nitrogen can be purchased, it is cost-prohibitive. Therefore, nitrogen is more commonly produced onsite with a membrane unit, resulting in a 95% level of purity.

There are four main techniques to achieve underbalance, including using lightweight drilling fluids, gas injection down the drill pipe, gas injection through a parasite string and foam injection.

 

Managed Pressure Drilling: Managed pressure drilling is a technology that enables a driller to control annular pressures in the wellbore more precisely. Managed pressure drilling is a form of primary well control using a closed fluid system that allows a more precise control of the wellbore pressure profile.

 

3.2. Drilling Fluid

Drilling fluid, also referred to as “drilling mud”, is a term that includes most fluids used in the drilling business to facilitate the drilling of oil and gas wells. The term includes fluids based upon water, hydrocarbon or gases, together with various additives designed to adjust the properties of the fluid systems. Drilling fluids are designed to encompass the functions of cleaning the hole, stabilizing the rock drilled, controlling subsurface pressures, enhancing drilling rates and protecting potential production zones while conserving the environment in the surrounding surface and subsurface area.
Drilling fluids are vital to the successful completion of virtually all drilling projects. An effective drilling fluid system, though representing a relatively small proportion of the overall cost of drilling, can reduce time to drill, increase wellbore stability and maximize recovery from the reservoir, which ultimately impacts the economic return of the well. The following diagram illustrates the circulation of drilling fluids through a drilling rig.

 

Aerated Muds: is drilling fluid that has been injected with compressed air.

Dry gas and Mist

Energized and Foam

   

 

Oil-Based Muds: can be a mud where the base fluid is a petroleum product such as diesel fuel. Oil-based muds are used for many reasons, some being increased lubricity, enhanced shale inhibition, and greater cleaning abilities with less viscosity. Oil-based muds also withstand greater heat without breaking down. The use of oil-based muds has special considerations. These include cost and environmental considerations.

   

 

Synthetic-Based Muds: is a mud where the base fluid is a synthetic oil. This is most often used on offshore rigs because it has the properties of an oil-based mud, but the toxicity of the fluid fumes are much less than an oil-based fluid. This is important when men work with the fluid in an enclosed space such as an offshore drilling rig.

   

 

Visco-Elastic (micro-emulsion) Fluids: is a type of drilling fluid which could overcome the fluid loss problem, with thermal stability up to a temperature of 280 °F. At the same time, could show good transport capacity, resistance to typical contaminants (crude oil, sands, etc), excellent lubricity, low environmental impact, and minimum equipment requirements for its formulation and control. Viscoelastic drilling fluids are known for having very good fluid loss control properties and for causing minimum formation damage.

   
Water-Based Muds:  a most basic water-based mud system begins with water, then clays and other chemicals are incorporated into the water to create a homogenous blend resembling. The clay (called "shale" in its rock form) is usually a combination of native clays that are suspended in the fluid while drilling, or specific types of clay that are processed and sold as additives for the WBM system. The most common of these isbentonite, frequently referred to in the oilfield as "gel". Gel likely makes reference to the fact that while the fluid is being pumped, it can be very thin and free-flowing, though when pumping is stopped, the static fluid builds a "gel" structure that resists flow. When an adequate pumping force is applied to "break the gel", flow resumes and the fluid returns to its previously free-flowing state. Many other chemicals are added to a WBM system to achieve various effects, including: viscosity control, shale stability, enhance drilling rate of penetration, cooling and lubricating of equipment.   drillingfluids

 

3.2. Reserved Pit and Solid Control Equipment

Drilling fluids that are not circulating in the active system can be stored in a reserve pit. The earthen pit provides space for solids to settle, water to evaporate and additional fluid if fluid must be pumped into the wellbore. Reserve pits are used less frequently, since environmental protection during drilling operations is a key concern.

 

Closed Loop, Containers, and Solid Control Equipment: this reserve pit set-up consists of a closed loop, containers, and equipment to manage and dispose of contaminated wastes.    
Lined Reserve Pit and Solid Control Equipment:  this reserve pit set-up consists of a contained location designated for waste disposal, complete with lining to prevent seepage.  Reserve pit fluids are allowed to dry and the remaining solids are encapsulated with the reserve pit synthetic liner and buried in place.   reservepit
Open Reserve Pit and Solid Control Equipment: the reserve pit set-up consists of a contained location designated for waste disposal. Pitless drilling systems are equipped with a “chemically-enhanced” centrifuge that separates drilling mud liquids from solids. The separated drilling mud solids are stored in a steel tank and then transferred to a synthetically-lined clay pad for drying. The pads are designed to prevent the runoff of any liquids. The drill cuttings are either buried on site or are transferred to an approved commercial disposal facility for disposal.    

 

 

3.3. Waste Management

 

Bioremediation: is defined as any process that uses microorganisms or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. Bioremediation can be used to degrade oil spills.   bioremediation

 

Chemical Fixation and Solidification: Chemical fixation transforms toxic contaminants to new, nontoxic forms. Chemical fixation required mechanical mixing or blending of reagents with the contaminated mass. Solidification results in a solid, low-permeable block of contaminated soil. Specialized, solidifying admixtures are incorporated to mechanically lock contaminants within the solidified matrix.   chemicalfixation

 

Co-Composting: is the controlled aerobic degradation of organics using more than one material, such as fecal sludge and organic solid waste.   co-composting

 

Composting: is the controlled aerobic biological decomposition of organic matter into a stable, humus-like product called compost.   composting
Cuttings Injection: is a waste disposal technique where drill cuttings and other oilfield wastes are slurried by being milled and sheared in the presence of water. The resulting slurry is then disposed by pumping it into a dedicated disposal well.  

 

cuttingsinjection

Evaporation and Burial Onsite: are waste disposal techniques where the water in the drill cuttings is evaporated and the remaining wastes are placed in a designated reserve pit on site.    

 

In-situ Vitrification: is a technology developed for contaminants and pollutants. In respect to soil and groundwater pollution, in-situ vitrification is a waste disposal method where soil containing the pollutant is turned into a large block of glass.   vitrification

 

Land-Spreading: is a waste disposal method where natural soil processes are used to biodegrade the organic constituents in the waste. In land-spreading, the waste can only be applied once to a parcel of land in order to preserve the subsoil’s chemical, biological, and physical properties and limit the accumulation of contaminants in the area.    
Thermal Desorption: is an environmental remediation technology that utilizes heat to increase the volatility of contaminants such that they can be removed from the soil.   thermaldesorption
Plasma Arc: is a waste disposal method that uses electrical energy and high temperatures created by an electrical arc gasifier. The arc is used to break down the waste into elemental gas and solid waste in a device called the plasma converter. This method reduces the volume of waste to be disposed.  

 

plasmaarc

Plasma utilization of toxic waste
(http://www.plasmawastedisposal.com/)

 

 

4. Restoration

 

Harvest organic or native species.

 

Wild Live and Agricultural assessment.

 

Use of clean equipment to avoid invasive species.

 

5. Societal

5.1. Communication Channels

 

Inform nearby stakeholders about activities an drilling plans.

 

Hold meeting with community.

 

Inform risk mitigation efforts.

 

Share documentation for reducing footprint plans.

 

Create webpages to grant access of information to all the involved parties.

 

Create a dispute resolution plan.

 

5.2. Safety

 

Hold training sessions with employees.

 

Train for risk mitigation to workers.

 

Train for handeling wild life to workers.

 

Score Card

The environmental scorecard was developed to determine the tradeoffs associated with implementing low impact drilling technology in environmentally sensitive areas. The scorecard assesses drilling operations and technologies with respect to air, site, water, waste management, biodiversity and societal issues. Low environmental impact drilling and completion operations may reduce the environmental footprint of operations by the adoption of new methods to use in (1) getting materials to and from the rig site (site access), (2) reducing the rig site area, (3) using alternative drilling rig power management systems, and (4) adopting waste management at the rig site.
It is a performance-oriented system where points are earned for satisfying criteria. Different levels of certification are awarded based on the total points earned (Houston Advanced Research Center, 2010). The resulting Score Card is evaluated through a sequence of weighted questions (total of 100 points) that concerns to the implementation of several environmentally friendly technologies.

 

1. Air

Minimize air pollution by complying with air quality regulations as mandated by the Clean Air Act, other EPA, BLM and state regulations.

Credit 1
Contractual Obligations for Logistics
Question
1 Point
Require all contractors and subcontractors associated with any logistical support or well site operations to use retrofit technology on all on-road vehicles that have Tier I or lower engines. The project shall comply with the regulations.
Air 1
1 Point
To obtain the full 2 Points, require all contractors and subcontractors associated with any logistical support to use clean Tier II (or higher) engines for on-road vehicles.
Air 2
Credit 2
Site Emissions
1 Point
Use of clean Tier III/Type III engines for all non-road vehicles. Alternatively, ensure application of retrofit technology to non-road vehicles that are Tier II or lower.
Air 3
1 Point
Use of Tier IV engines for all vehicles will give a total of two points.
Air 4
Credit 3
Dust Suppression
2 points
Two points may be obtained by submitting a dust suppression plan and implementing/documenting the plan.
Air 5
Credit 4
Clean Power
Air 6
1 Point
Use Tier IV diesel engines or natural gas from the field to power electric motors to run the drill rig.
1 Point
A total of two points may be obtained by connecting the drill rig to the electric grid.
Air 7
1 Point
A total of three points may be obtained by connecting the drill rig to the electric grid and certifying that the electricity is generated by solar or wind.
Air 8
Credit 5
Green Completions
1 Point
One points may be obtained by submitting a plan to use green completion practices. Plan must be implemented by performing and documenting the use of green completion practices.
Air 9

 

2. Water

Limit disruption of natural hydrology by managing stormwater runoff.

Credit 1
Water Management Plan
Question
3 Points

Develop and implement a water management plan that includes, for example, a freshwater pond that limits contact with live water bodies. Plan should include reuse of water with ongoing drilling and completions to reduce need for new fresh water. Plan should address the Clean Water Act and other regulations. 

Plan should include a water sourcing/use/discharge survey that includes knowledge of the locations, routes and integrity of supply/drainage/discharge systems and points.

Water 1
2 Points
Plan and implement the segregation of liquid effluents principally along industrial, utility, sanitary and stormwater categories, in order to limit the volume of water requiring specialized treatment. Characteristics of individual streams may also be used for source segregation. Separate grey water from sanitary waste water streams from living quarters. Divert grey water to use as make-up water in mud system.
Water 2
2 Points
Identify opportunities to prevent or reduce wastewater pollution through such measures as recycle/reuse within the development area.
Water 3
1 Point
Assess compliance of wastewater discharges within the applicable discharge standard and water quality standard (for reuse, for example, for irrigation).
Water 4
1 Point
Plan and implement a contingency plan to prevent contaminants from reaching a receiving water system.
Water 5
Credit 2
Setbacks from Streams/Sources
2 Points
Inform all stakeholders that have water wells, streams, wetlands, or other water sources within 1,000 feet of the proposed operation.
Water 6
1 Point
Inform all stakeholders that are within 500 feet of 5,000 feet downstream of the operation of any stream that is within 1,000 feet of the proposed operation.
Water 7
1 Point
Hold a stakeholders meeting will all stakeholders identified to discuss the operation, any risk to the fresh water sources and all risk mitigation efforts that are planned. Discuss with stakeholders how they can assist to ensure that risks are minimized.
Water 8
Credit 3
Mitigation Measures/Protect Waters
2 Points
Develop an implement a detailed monitoring program to ensure that mitigation measures are in place, functional and adequate.
Water 9
2 Points
One additional point may be obtained by the inclusion of monitoring the non-contact runoff to ensure that contamination does not occur.
Water 10
Credit 4
Reduce Water Usage
1 Point
Develop and implement a water use efficiency program.
Water 11
1 Point
Develop and implement process to reduce the use of hazardous materials that could increase water treatment requirements.
Water 12
Credit 5
Reuse of Watwer/Fluids
1 Point
Develop and implement a plan to use water/fluids from nonpotable (not suitable for drinking) sources that are located within 50 miles of the site.
Water 13

 

3. Site

Intend to comply with all rules and regulations governing site required by law. Requires to develop and implement plan to address all local, state and federal regulations. This includes ensuring that all operations are in compliance to protect archeological and historic sites.

Credit 1
Pre-Existing Site
Question
2 points

A total of two points may be obtained by performing the following:                      

1. Fully evaluate the possibility of the reuse of an existing drill site, including the financial impact on the drilling budget.

2. Select and use pre-existing drill site.

Site 1
Credit 2
Pad Drilling
1 Point
Employ pad drilling to drill more than a single well from the drill site.
Site 2
1 Point
Additional point for having a minimum of eight wells on the drill site.
Site 3
Credit 3
Protect and Restore Habitat
1 Point
Perform a site survey to identify site elements and adopt a plan concerning use and restoration of the site.
Site 4
1 Point
Use a spill control system and mats to limit surface disturbance.
Site 5
Credit 4
Contractor Guidelines
1 Point
Publishing an illustrated document that provides contractors with information on how to reduce their environmental footprint related to the drill site.
Site 6
1 Point
Hold training sessions with all contractors to review the document and the strategies listed in the document.
Site 7
Credit 5
Site Restoration Plan
1 Point
Reclaim the site to its original elevations using the stockpiled topsoil and replanting the entire area with native grasses or other vegetation as directed.
Site 8
1 Point
Use topography to hide structure locations, use low profile structures.
Site 9
Credit 6
Well Design Considerations
1 Point
Document how the environmental sensitivities were taken into consideration when developing the well design.
Site 10
1 Point
Review reservoir development plan to maximize production from each well and to minimize the number of wells that need to be drilled.
Site 11
Credit 7
Living Quarters and People
2 points
Two points may be obtained by developing and implementing a recycling program to minimize household waste. Program should include segregating hazardous wastes (such as fluorescent light bulbs, oil filters and absorbent pads used for spill clean-ups) and should also include recycling/salvaging lubricants, cables, etc.
Site 12
Credit 8
Organic Materials
1 Point
One point may be obtained by harvesting organic materials during site preparation, mulching organic materials to be used on site during site restoration, and by burying remaining organic materials.
Site 13
Credit 9
Pre-Plan for Production
2 points
Two points may be obtained by preplanning for production by including the layout of flowlines, planning for stock tanks and other production equipment during the well site preparation.
Site 14
Credit 10
Match Site/Access to Topography
1 Point
Whenever possible, use previously impacted terrain for access routes. Also, build irregularly shaped drill pad to conform to natural topography.
Site 15
Credit 11
Logistic plan/Offshore Storage
1 Point
Develop and implement a logistics plan that considers a centralized location for storage of equipment and supplies for various drill pads. The plan may include personnel transportation.
Site 16
Credit 12
Planting of Native Vegetation
1 Point
Develop and implement a plan that includes planting of native vegetation at the appropriate time of the year for the plants to become established.
Site 17

 

4. Waste Management

Provide guidance to waste managers as they balance business needs, risk, and exposure. Increase environmental protection by reducing the potential for pollution of the site and surrounding land, water and air during the exploration and production of oil and gas.

Credit 1
Drilling Fluid Handling System
Question
2 Points
Establish a cuttings management plan.
WM 1
2 Points
Use environmentally friendly drilling fluids.
WM 2
1 Point
Use a modified closed loop system by using additional drilling fluids handling equipment in addition to what is supplied by the rig. For example, use rig system when using a water based mud system then add high speed/low speed centrifuges and separate dry/wet cuttings in tanks when using an oil base system.
WM 3
1 Point
Use a full closed loop system in addition to rig system that includes a cuttings dryer.
WM 4
Credit 2
Handling of Rig Wastes
2 Points
Use biodegradable lubricants and include a recycle/salvage plan for disposal.
WM 5
1 Point
Use environmentally friendly pipe dope for both drill pipe and casing.
WM 6
1 Point
Use electric top drive system to minimize use of hydraulic fluids.
WM 7
1 Point
Maximize the use of bulk materials. Minimize the use of pallets, bags, etc.
WM 8
Credit 3
Spill Prevention System
1 Point
To minimize the risk of any spillage, including, drilling fluids, oil/fuel, lubricants, drip pans and other devices/systems should be used.
WM 9
1 Point
Ensure that all equipment installed on the site is designed so that any effluent is caught and is not discharged directly in the environment.
WM 10
1 Point
Develop and implement plan for bioremediation of spills and use of landfarming.
WM 11
Credit 4
Cutting Reuse
3 Points
Three points may be obtained through the development and implementation of a drill cuttings recovery and reuse plan.
WM 12
Credit 5
Cutting Reinjection
3 Points
Three points may be obtained by developing and implementing a cuttings reinjection plan.
WM 13

 

5. Biodiversity

Protection of all Threatened and Endangered (T&E) species as listed on the Federal list (Endangered Species Act) and the State list.

Credit 1
Restoration/Interim Reclamation
Question
4 Points
Four points may be obtained by developing a well abandonment plan before the well is drilled and ensure that the plan is updated during the well's life whenever the well's configuration is changed.
Bio 1
Credit 2
Reduction of Surface Disturbance
1 Point
During construction and drilling, shuttle workers to site.
Bio 2
1 Point
Establish centralized location for hydraulic fracturing and water delivery.
Bio 3
1 Point
Install systems to enable remote monitoring.
Bio 4
Credit 3
Erosion Prevention
1 Point
Plan and install access roads to avoid erosion.
Bio 5
1 Point
Armor roadway ditches and leadoff ditches with rock riprap.
Bio 6
Credit 4
Voluntary Offsite Mitigation
1 Point
One point may be obtained for establishing and implementing a plan that includes passive techniques that encourages biodiversity and ecosystem health, for example, seeding of native plants and constructing topographical features as well as more active techniques, for example, closing roads and other techniques to limit disturbance by off-road vehicles, developing and implementing efforts to reduce poaching and accidental shooting.
Bio 7
Credit 5
Invasive Species Prevention
1 Point

Receive one (1) point for performing three (3) of the following: 

1. Site Restoration – use native species to restore site.     

2. Identify and establish no impact zones. 

3. Clean equipment that is moved between sites to prevent transport of invasive species.

4.  Ensure that materials (soils, mulch, etc.) brought in to site are certified to be invasive free.

5.  Identify and remove invasive species on site.

Bio 8
Credit 6
Reintroduction of Species and Habitat
1 Point

One point may be obtained by:

1.  Ensuring that a botanical expert is on site when clearing vegetation occurs. The expert should develop a pre-disturbance species composition list. Then, a restoration/revegetation plan should be developed and implemented based on the pre-disturbance species composition list, and

2.  Ensuring that a wildlife expert is consulted and on site, if necessary, when site construction activities occur. The expert should document various topographical and other features that are conducive to wildlife habitat(s). Then, a restoration plan should be developed and implemented that would encourage the return of native wildlife.

Bio 9
Credit 7
Avoidance of High Value Areas
1 Point
One point may be obtained by including input from on-site land manager(s) to preserve agricultural land when selecting locations for facilities.
Bio 10
Credit 8
Wildlife and Habitat
1 Point

One point may be obtained by performing the following:     

1.  Scout the sensitive areas and plan routes likely to cause least disruption.

2.  Stay clear of wildlife areas marked on the planning map to avoid sensitive areas.

3.  Ban hunting and fishing at all times.

4.  Instruct crews not to intentionally harass or feed wildlife.

5.  Ban pets on all crew facilities.

6.  Report incidents and any significant problems with wildlife.

7.  Train crews to identify wildlife.

Bio 11
1 Point
An additional point may be obtained by developing and implementing a habitat mitigation plan that includes enhancements to the area that encourages biodiversity and improves wildlife mortality rates.
Bio 12

 

6. Societal

Conduct all business in a way that will not endanger public health and safety.

Credit 1
Public Outreach
Question
1 Point

One point may be obtained by:

1.  Engage community early and often in discussions concerning energy development.

2.  Reach a consensus with community leaders concerning location of facilities that may potentially be visible from public places.

3.  Work with local law enforcement to develop and implement measures to reduce traffic safety hazards.

4.  Engage local and regional officials to advise on health and safety concerns associated with operations

Soc 1
1 Point
Develop and implement a logistics plan to transport all consumables for the project to and from the location in the least disruptive way and how to store and use them on location in the safest possible manner.
Soc 2
1 Point
Develop and implement a public interaction plan, including a communication process that keeps the public informed of planned activities and progress.
Soc 3
Credit 2
Noise and lighting Control
1 Point
Work with community leaders to identify noise management guidelines. This may include the construction of sound/safety barriers. May include control of traffic in middle of night, managing logistics to minimize noise between 11 pm and 5 am.
Soc 4
1 Point
Minimize residual lighting effects. Take into consideration location of surrounding structures/buildings/land use. Focus lights onto work area and minimize lighting of surrounding areas.
Soc 5
Credit 3
Trainning of Local First Responders
1 Point
Develop and implement plan to train local emergency medical service personnel on issues that may arise during operations.
Soc 6
1 Point
Provide support to local public health service providers that could address key public health issues.
Soc 7
Credit 4
Air Quality Monitors
1 Point

Install air quality monitors to ensure that the following are met.

1.  VOCs, including Benzene don't exceed 20 miligrams per normal cubic meter, unless otherwise specified.

 2.  Hydrogen Sulfide don't exceed 30 miligrams per normal cubic meter, unless otherwise specified.

3.  Odor is not offensive at the receptor end*

* Hydrogen Sulfide at the property boundaryshould be less than 5 mg/m3

Soc 8
1 Point
Provide web site that has links to data from sensors.
Credit 5
Emergency Response Plans
2 Points
Two points may be obtained by developing and implementing an Emergency Response Plan that goes beyond requirements and engages the community. The Emergency Response Plan should be a set of scenario-based procedures to assist emergency responders during real life emergencies as well as training exercises. The plan should include an assessment of local support capabilities.
Soc 9
Credit 6
Dispute Resolution Plan
1 Point
Develop a dispute resolution plan that is agreed to with landowners. Include in the plan a process that would handle any dispute and agree on how the costs would be split among the affected parties.
Soc 10
Credit 7
Surface Use Plan
1 Point
One point may be obtained by developing and implementing a Surface Use Plan that ensures environmental expectations exceed regulatory requirements concerning exploration and production activities. ‘Leave the land better than you found it.?
Soc 11
1 Point

An additional one point may be obtained by:

1.  Organizing and holding a workshop to inform all landowners and the surrounding community about the operational commitment to environmental stewardship.

2.  Routinely (suggested weekly, must be at least monthly) inform landowners and community about environmental stewardship related to surface use. This may be done through a web site, electronic newsletters, mailings or other means.

Soc 12
Credit 8
Unintended Consequences Plan
1 Point
Develop and implement a company policy that addresses unintended consequences that may arise during the development. Communicate company policy to all stakeholders. In addition, ensure that stakeholders are aware of whom to contact if/when an issue arises.
Soc 13

 

Score Card Definitions

Retrofit Technology

While diesel engines have many advantages, they have the disadvantage of emitting significant amounts of particulate matter (PM) and the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) into the atmosphere. Diesel engines also emit toxic air pollutants. Health experts have concluded that pollutants emitted by diesel engines adversely affect human health and contribute to acid rain, ground-level ozone and reduced visibility. Studies have shown that exposure to diesel exhaust causes lung damage and respiratory problems and there is increasing evidence that diesel emissions may cause cancer in humans.


Companies that manufacture emission controls have responded to the challenge of reducing the air pollution from diesel engines. Through their efforts, cost-effective retrofit technologies have been developed to reduce harmful emissions. Within the various mobile source sectors (e.g., mining and materials handling, trucking, urban bus and school bus, ports, and construction), diesel retrofit technologies have demonstrated their ability to significantly reduce unwanted emissions at reasonable costs without jeopardizing vehicle performance.


Typically, diesel retrofit involves the addition of an emission control device to remove emissions from the engine exhaust. Retrofits can be very effective at reducing emissions, eliminating up to 90 percent of pollutants in some cases. Some examples of emission control devices used for diesel retrofit include diesel oxidation catalysts, diesel particulate filters, NOx catalysts, selective catalytic reduction, and exhaust gas recirculation. Devices to control crankcase emissions also exist.


The diesel emission reduction strategies are:

Some of the he Retrofit Technologies available are:

(http://www.meca.org/cs/root/diesel_retrofit_subsite/what_is_retrofit/what_is_retrofit)

The Selection Evaluation of the Score Card requires any of this type of systems (it doesn’t specify which one) for Tier I or lower engines.

 

Tier Ratings

The engine tier depends on the model, year and horsepower rating of the engine.  Is required the engine manufacturer, model year, and family name to determine the tier rating for the engine. 

 

TierChart

Tier Chart

(http://www.aqmd.gov/comply/PERP/tier.htm)

 

Green Completion Practices

Those practices intended to reduce emissions of salable gas and condensate vapors during cleanout and flow back operations prior to the well being placed on production.  Green completion practices are required on oil and gas wells where reservoir pressure, formation productivity, and wellbore conditions are likely to enable the well to be capable of naturally flowing hydrocarbon gas in flammable or greater concentrations at a stabilized rate in excess of 500 mcfd to the surface against an induced surface backpressure of 500 psig of sales line pressure. (EFD Systems Technologies, web)


Green completions take place during the clean-up stage of the completion, after a well has been “fracked”.  The clean-up involves removing the water necessary to frack the well. During this flow back, natural gas is produced with the water.  What makes the well completion “green,” or environmentally friendly, is that the gas is separated from the water and placed in a pipeline instead of being released to the atmosphere.  The rental cost of the equipment is roughly $1,000 per day (DVN Corp, web)

 

Cutting Management Plan

Cutting

Drilling mud is used to control subsurface pressures, lubricate the drill bit, stabilize the well bore, and carry the cutting for the surface, among other functions.  Mud is pumped from the surface through the hollow drill string, exits through nozzles in the drill bit, and returns to the surface through the annular space between the drill string and the walls of the hole. The grinded rock is entrained by the mud flow and is carried to the surface.

In order to return the mud to the recirculating mud system and to make the solid easier to handle, the solids must be separated from the mud. The first step in separating the cuttings from the mud involves circulating the mixture over vibrating screens called “shale shakers”. The liquid mud passes through the screens and is recirculated back to the mud tanks from which mud is withdrawn for pumping downhole. The drill cuttings remain on top of the shale shakers screens; the vibratory action of the shakes mover the cuttings down the screen and off the end of the shakers to a point where they can be collected and stored on a tank or pit for further treatment or management.

The cuttings separated from the mud at the shale shakers may be coated with so much mud that they are unsuitable for the next reuse or disposal step or are difficult to handle or transport. Constituents from the cuttings or the mud coating them (e.g. oil or metals) may leach from the waste, making them unsuitable for land application or burial approaches.  Various materials can be added to cuttings to solidify or stabilize them.  The processes of solidification and stabilization can be defined as follows:

Mud Recirculation

(http://web.ead.anl.gov/dwm/techdesc/drilling/index.cfm)

 

 

 

System Selection + Score Card

The basis of the Score Card is basically oriented to the application of specific environmentally friendly technologies on a given site. Each question implies the implementation of a specific technology that subsequently can be identified in any of the subsystems developed for our system selection tool (Site and Rig, Power, Operation, Restoration and Societal).  


For this reason, the development of a model that could consider the Score Card principles might be able to identify, for each question, the equivalence to any of the technologies suggested in our System Selection tool. In that sense, was developed a table that indicates the system selection subsystem that requires each Score Card question.

 

Site and Rig
Technology Subset
Topic
Questions SC
Well Design
Reuse of pre-existig site, pad drilling, maximize number of wells per drill site
Site 1, Site 2, Site 3, Site 4, Site 11, Site 15
Rig Type
Use of spill controll system
Site 5, WM 9
Air Emissions Reduction
Use of Retrofit Technologies on engines Tier I or lower, dust suppression plan, Green Completion practices
Air 1, Air 5, Air 9
Transportation
Use of vehicles Tier II, III and IV
Air 2, Air 3, Air 4
Access Roads
Access roads to avoid erosion, roadway ditches and leadoff ditches
Bio 5, Bio 6
Site Preparation
Use of low profile structures, plan layout of flowlines, planning for stock tanks
Site 9, Site 14, Site 16
Establish centralized location for hydraulic fracturing and water delivery
Bio 3, Soc 2
Noise Reduction Facility
Construction of sound/safety barriers. Reduce residual lighting effect
Soc 4, Soc 5
Power
Technology Subset
Topic
Questions SC
Power
Use of Diesel or natural gas engines: Tier I, power from electric grid, solar or wind. Use of electric top drive system.
Air 6, Air 7, Air 8, WM 7
Operation
Technology Subset
Topic
Questions SC
Drilling Fluid Type
Water efficiency programs and reducement of hazardous materials
Water 11, Water 12, Water 13, WM 2, WM 5, WM 6
Reserve pit and solid control equipment
Waste water management plan, limit contact with live water bodies
Water 1
Waste Management
Reuse of water, plan of water discharge, implement contingency plans
Water 2, Water 3, Water 4, Water 5, WM 10
Regular and Remote Monitoring and Recicling Programs, Cuttings Management Plan
Water 9, Water 10,  WM 12, WM 13, Bio 4, Soc 8
Closed loop System, Cutting Dryer, Cuttings Management Plan, Bioremediation, Composting, 
WM 1, WM 3, WM 4, WM 11
Maximize bulk materials and minimize use of pallets, bags, etc.  Implementing recycling programs to minimize household waste.
Site 12, WM 8
Restoration Systems
Technology Subset
Topic
Questions SC
Restoration Systems
Harvest organic or native species for further planned restoration, wild life and agricultural assesment
Site 4, Site 8, Site 13, Site 17, Bio 1, Bio 7, Bio 8, Bio 9, Bio 10, Bio 11, Bio 12, Soc 12
Clean equipment
Bio 8, Bio 11
Societal
Technology Subset
Topic
Questions SC
Comunication Channels
Inform nearby stakeholders, hold meetings, inform risk mittigation efforts, share documentation for reducing footprint, web pages, hold trainning sessions, dispute resolution plan
Water 6, Water 7, Water 8, Site 6, Site 7, Site 10, Soc 1, Soc 3, Soc 5, Soc 7, Soc 9, Soc 11, Soc 13, Soc 14
Safety
Security and risk mitigation to workers, training to handle wild life
Bio 2, Bio 11, Soc 1, Soc 6, Soc 10

 

Spatial Collection of Data

 

The resulting risk evaluation of a Bayesian Model is highly susceptible to geographical conditions, which may have direct repercussions on the Environmental Impact, Society and Cost. These variables give the model a spatial sensibility that provides a better understanding of the real conditions that will reign in each selected location. Due to the variance of spatial variables, the model output can be represented as a single or a compendium of resulting risk maps that allows the identification and avoidance of places with a higher environmental sensibility, the zones that represent a higher cost or where it might cause a worse public perception, as well as a combination of these three.

 

Study Area

The Barnett Shale is a hydrocarbon-producing geological formation of great economic significance to Texas. It consists of sedimentary rocks and the productive part of the formation is estimated to stretch from the city of Dallas west and south, covering 5,000 square miles (13,000 km²) and at least 18 counties.


Some experts say that the Barnett Shale is the largest onshore natural gas field in the United States. The field name for the productive portion of the Barnett Shale formation has been designated as the Newark, East Field by the Texas Railroad Commission. (RRC, web November 13, 2011)


This section provides a short view to the gathered spatial data for the Barnet Shale (BS) and its surroundings.  The area to be studied is conformed by 24 Texas counties as defined by the Railroad Commission of Texas, and 27 counties surrounding the perimeter of the study area, corresponding to 51 counties where the data was collected.


Barnet Shale Counties

Surrounding Counties

  • Archer, Tx
  • Bosque, Tx
  • Clay , Tx
  • Comanche, Tx
  • Cooke, Tx
  • Coryell, Tx
  • Dallas, Tx
  • Denton, Tx
  • Eastland, Tx
  • Ellis, Tx
  • Erath, Tx
  • Hamilton, Tx
  • Hill, Tx
  • Hood, Tx
  • Jack, Tx
  • Johnson, Tx
  • Montague, Tx
  • Palo Pinto, Tx
  • Parker, Tx
  • Shackelford, Tx
  • Somervell, Tx
  • Stephens, Tx
  • Tarrant, Tx
  • Wise, Tx
  • Cotton, Ok
  • Jefferson, Ok
  • Love, Ok
  • Marshall, Ok
  • Baylor, Tx
  • Bell, Tx
  • Brown, Tx
  • Burnet, Tx
  • Callahan, Tx
  • Coleman, Tx
  • Collin, Tx
  • Grayson, Tx
  • Haskell, Tx
  • Henderson, Tx
  • Jones, Tx
  • Kaufman, Tx
  • Lampasas, Tx
  • Limestone, Tx
  • McLennan, Tx
  • Mills, Tx
  • Navarro, Tx
  • Rockwall, Tx
  • Taylor, Tx
  • Throckmorton, Tx
  • Wichita, Tx
  • Wilbarger, Tx
  • Young, Tx

 

BS_and_surroundings_Counties

 

Data Collection


The gathered data correspond to spatial variables that influence the evaluation of the Barnett Shale area, in terms of Public Perception, Environmental Impact and Cost, using the available public information for GIS tools. The data has been compiled in shapefile format and processed to select the information that concerns the study area and the features of interest. This page provides a description of the data gathered and the source where it was obtained from. The collected map themes are:

 

Streams

Table

Water Bodies

Table

Aquifers

Table

Precipitation

Table

Land Use/Land Cover

Table

Ecoregions

Table

Vegetation

Table

Roads

Table

Schools

Table

Local Economy

Table

 

The nodes in the proposed Bayesian Network model with spatial sensibility were identified as follows:

Spatial Dependent Uncertainty Nodes

 

UncertaintyDependencies

Spatial Dependent Environmental Nodes

EnvironmentalDependencies

Spatial Dependent Cost Nodes

 

CostDependencies

 

Spatial Dependent Public Perception Nodes

 

PPDependencies

 

 

References

Works Cited (Site & Rig Group)

"RIGZONE - How Does Directional Drilling Work?" RIGZONE - Your Gateway to the Oil & Gas Industry. Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://www.rigzone.com/training/insight.asp?insight_id=295&c_id=1>.


"Diesel engine -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diesel_engine>.


"Helicopter -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helicopters>.


Rogers, J.D., Knoll, B., Haut, R., Mcdole, B. & Deskins, G., 2006. Assessments of Technologies for Environmentally Friendly Drilling Project: Land-Based Operations. Texas A&M University Environmentally Friendly Drilling report.


"Ultra-low sulfur diesel -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultra-low_sulfur_diesel>.


"Arctic Power - Arctic National Wildlife Refuge - Today's drilling leaves a small footprint." Arctic Power - Arctic National Wildlife Refuge - Home. Web. 15 Feb. 2010. <http://www.anwr.org/Technology/Today-s-drilling-leaves-a-small-footprint.php>.


AGRA Foundations. Web. 15 Feb. 2010. <http://www.agrafoundations.ca/driven-piles/>.


Anderson Drilling. Web. 15 Feb. 2010. <http://www.andersondrilling.com/Projects_SubCategory.aspx?pProjectCategoryId=1>.


"Caliche (mineral) -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 15 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caliche_(mineral)>.


"Drill-Site Preparation." School Science Project Information. Web. 11 Feb. 2010.
<http://schoolscience.rice.edu/duker/oil/sitepreparation.html>.


"Fill dirt -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 15 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fill_dirt>.


"Hayward Baker - Grouting, Ground Improvement, Structural Support and Earth Retention specialists." Hayward Baker; A Keller Company. Web. 15 Feb. 2010. <http://www.haywardbaker.com/services/driven_piles.htm>.


"Modular design -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 15 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modular_design>.


"Piling - definition of piling by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia." Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary. Web. 15 Feb. 2010. <http://www.thefreedictionary.com/piling>.


"Shallow foundation -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 15 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shallow_foundation>.


"Spread footing: Definition from Answers.com." Answers.com: Wiki Q&A combined with free online dictionary, thesaurus, and encyclopedias. Web. 15 Feb. 2010. <http://www.answers.com/topic/spread-footing>.


"Barge Rigs." Home. Web. 15 Feb. 2010. <http://www.seamarsvcs.com/Public/Index.asp?Page_ID=104>.


"Drilling rig -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 15 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drilling_rig>.


“Jackup Rig.-”Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 15 Oct. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jackup_rig#Barges>

Oil and Gas Well Drilling and Servicing eTool “ United States Department of Labor/ Dictionary of Petroleum Terms. Web. 15 Oct. 2011. <http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/oilandgas/glossary_of_terms/glossary_of_terms_c.html>

“Flex Rigs.-” Colorado Energy Careers. Web. 15 Oct. 2011. <http://coloradoenergycareers.blogspot.com/2008/06/flex-rigs.html>

“Ideal Rig System.-” National Oilwell Varco. Web. 15 Oct. 2011. <http://www.nov.com/Drilling/Rigs/IDEAL_AC_DC_Land_Rig.aspx>

“Containerized CWD rig cuts costs” HARTENERGY. Web. 16 Oct. 2011.  <http://www.epmag.com/archives/techWatch/467.htm>

“Truck Mounted Drilling Rig” Rig Manufacturer. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. <http://www.rigmanufacturer.com/trailer-mounted-drilling-rig.html>

 

Works Cited (Power)

"Battery (electricity) -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 22 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battery_(electricity)>.


"Biogas -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 22 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biogas>.


"Internal Combustion Engine - Understanding the Internal Combustion Engine." Inventors. Web. 22 Feb. 2010. <http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blinternalcombustion.htm>.


"Lean-Burn Gas Generator Sets from Cummins Power Generation." Welcome to  CumminsPower.com. Web. 22 Feb. 2010. <http://www.cumminspower.com/en/products/generators/leanburn/>.


"Natural gas -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 22 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_gas>.


"Photovoltaics -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 22 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photovoltaics>.


Rogers, J.D., Knoll, B., Haut, R., Mcdole, B. & Deskins, G., 2006. Assessments of Technologies for Environmentally Friendly Drilling Project: Land-Based Operations. Texas A&M University Environmentally Friendly Drilling report.


"Selective catalytic reduction -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 22 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selective_catalytic_reduction>.


"Ultra-low sulfur diesel -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 22 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultra-low_sulfur_diesel>.
“Internal Combustion Engine.-“ Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. . Web. 17 Oct. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine>

 “Engine & Emissions Control Standards” FactsAboutSCR.com. Web. 17 Oct. 2011. <http://www.factsaboutscr.com/scr/engine-control-standards.aspx>

 

Works Cited (Operation)

 

"Co-composting - Akvopedia." Akvo.org - See it happen. Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://www.akvo.org/wiki/index.php/Co-composting>.


"Composting -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Composting>.


"Drilling Engineering -." Google Books. Web. 28 Feb. 2010. <http://books.google.com/books?id=eseViO982VgC&pg=PA38&lpg=PA38&dq=overbalanced+drilling&source=bl&ots=D7myk-xqtk&sig=yS19Tktds3cc-hr28PUI_Vi5NAU&hl=en&ei=zzuLS4PmKcef8AbaxK2dDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CBYQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=overbalanced%20drilling&f=false>.
"Drilling Fluid Definition in Oil Gas Glossary." Oil Gas Technical Terms Glossary | OilGasGlossary.com. Web. 02 Mar. 2010. <http://oilgasglossary.com/drilling-fluid.html>.


"Drilling Waste Management Fact Sheet: Land Application." Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://web.ead.anl.gov/dwm/techdesc/land/index.cfm>.


"In Situ Vitrification." The Charles Edward Via, Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://www.cee.vt.edu/ewr/environmental/teach/gwprimer/vitrify/index.html>.


"Managed pressure drilling techniques and tools." Repository. Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/3884>.
National Engineering Handbook Composting (2000): 2-1-10. Print.


"Photograph of Reserve Pit." Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary. Web. 02 Mar. 2010. <http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/DisplayImage.cfm?ID=346>.


"Plasma arc waste disposal -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasma_arc_waste_disposal>.


"Reserve Pits." Google. Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://74.125.47.132/search?q=cache%3AOzoRh5ZetGgJ%3Awww.fws.gov%2Fcontaminants%2FDocuments%2FReservePitsBirdMortality.pdf+open+reserve+pit&hl=en&gl=us>.


Rogers, J.D., Knoll, B., Haut, R., Mcdole, B. & Deskins, G., 2006. Assessments of Technologies for Environmentally Friendly Drilling Project: Land-Based Operations. Texas A&M University Environmentally Friendly Drilling report.


"Stabilization, Solidification, & Chemical Fixation - MARCOR Environmental, LP." MARCOR Environmental, LP. - Remediation contracting services since 1980. Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://www.marcor.com/index.cfm/do/services.display/alias/stabilization-solidification-chemical-fixation>.


"Thermal desorption -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_desorption>.


"Underbalanced drilling -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Underbalanced_drilling>.


"What Is Bioremediation?" Automation in Microbiology and Biosciences. Web. 01 Mar. 2010.
 <http://www.bionewsonline.com/w/what_is_bioremediation.htm>.

"How Underbalanced Drilling Work?" RIGZONE. Web. Nov. 11, 2011. <http://www.rigzone.com/training/insight.asp?insight_id=312&c_id=1>

J. Blanco, SPE, D. Ocando, SPE, A. Lanza, R. Rendon, F. Rodríguez, A. Caligiore, J. Acosta, and N. Carrero, PDVSA. “Viscoelastic System as an Alternative to UBD for Drilling a Severely Fractured Limestone Reservoir in the Borbuarata Field”.  SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. November 2007, Anaheim, California, U.S.A. <http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/servlet/onepetropreview?id=SPE-109203-MS&soc=SPE>

“Drilling Fluid”. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drilling_fluid#Types_of_drilling_fluid>

“Drilling Fluids” Canadian Energy Services. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. <http://www.canadianenergyservices.com/operations_drilling_fluids.html>

 

Works Cited (General Definitions)

Kevin B. Korb and Ann E. Nicholson, 2003. Bayesian Artificial Intelligence. Chapman & Hall/CRC. London, UK. 29 pp

Environmentally Friendly Drilling Systems, 2010. Score Card. Reference Guide. Houston Advanced Research Center. First Edition. The Woodlands, Texas.


 O.-Y. Yu, SPE; Z. Medina-Cetina, Texas A&M University; S. D. Guikema, Johns Hopkins University; J.-L. Briaud, SPE, and D. B. Burnett, 2010. A Comparative Analysis between Causal vs. Non-Causal Selection of Onshore Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) Systems. Texas A&M University. Publication (?)

Rogers, J. D., Knoll, B., Haut, R., McDole, B. and Deskins, G. 2006. Assessments of Technologies for Environmentally Friendly Drilling Project: Land-Based Operations. Environmentally Friendly Drilling Systems Project Report, GPRI.

 

"Barnett Shale Information. What is the Barnett Shale?" Railroad Comission od Texas. Web. November 14, 2011. <http://www.rrc.state.tx.us/barnettshale/index.php>

 

"What is Retrofit?" Deasel Retrofit Technology for Clean Air. MECA. Web. Oct. 26, 2011 <http://www.meca.org/cs/root/diesel_retrofit_subsite/what_is_retrofit/what_is_retrofit>

 

"Tier Ratings" South Coast Air QualityManagement District. Portable Engine Tier Rating. Web. Oct. 26, 2011 <http://www.aqmd.gov/comply/PERP/tier.htm>

 

"Green Completions" Environmentally Friendly Drilling Systems. Web. Oct. 26, 2011 <http://www.efdsystems.org/Technologies/AirQuality/EmissionsControl/GreenCompletion/tabid/1859/Default.aspx>

 

"Green completions now the standard in Barnett Shale". DEVON. Web. Oct. 26, 2011 <http://www.dvn.com/CorpResp/initiatives/Pages/GreenCompletions.aspx#terms?disclaimer=yes>

 

"Fact Sheet-Solidification and Stabilization". Drilling Waste Management Information System. Web. Oct. 26, 2011 <http://web.ead.anl.gov/dwm/techdesc/solid/index.cfm>

 

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