Power Group:

1.      Conventional Rig Power: the source of energy and power that allows the operations of the rig to occur.

a.      Internal Combustion Engine: an internal combustion engine is an engine that burns its fuel inside the engine. Internal combustion engines can be fueled by gas, diesel, methane, hydrogen, or propane. The four-stroke internal combustion engine is most commonly used for automotive and industrial purposes. On the first (downward) stroke of the piston, fuel/air is drawn into the cylinder. The following (upward) stroke compresses the fuel-air mixture, which is then ignited - expanding exhaust gases then force the piston downward for the third stroke, and the fourth and final (upward) stroke evacuates the spent exhaust gasses from the cylinder.

      With noise suppressor: internal combustion engine designed to minimize noise pollution

      With SCR (selective catalytic reduction): internal combustion engine with the means of converting nitrogen oxides with the aid of a catalyst into diatomic nitrogen and water.

      With noise suppressor and SCR


[Internal Combustion Engine]

Referenced from http://bkachinsky.transworld.net/files/2009/06/internal-combustion-engine1.jpeg


b.      Utility Turbines: Utility Turbines range from several hundred kilowatts to several hundred megawatts. Air is pulled through rotating and fixed blades in the compression turbine, raising both the pressure and temperature of the air. The compressed air is then forced into a combustion chamber where fuel is injected and ignited. Hot gases exiting the combustion chamber expand across rotating and fixed blades in the power turbines.

      With noise suppressor: a noise suppressor is added to minimize noise pollution


[Utility Turbine] Referenced from http://mm04.nasaimages.org/MediaManager/srvr?mediafile=/Size2/nasaNAS-2-NA/12192/1979_02989L.jpg&userid=1&username=admin&resolution=2&servertype=JVA&cid=2&iid=nasaNAS&vcid=NA&usergroup=nasa&profileid=9


c.       Lean-burn natural gas engines: a lean-burn natural gas engine is an internal combustion engine that is fueled by a mixture of natural gas and excess air. The excess air reduces the temperature of the combustion process and reduces the amount of nitrogen oxides by nearly half, compared to the conventional natural gas engine. With the excess oxygen available, the combustion process is more efficient and more power is produced from the same amount of fuel.

      With noise suppressor: a noise suppressor is added to minimize noise pollution


[Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines] Referenced from http://www.energysolutionscenter.org/distgen/AppGuide/Images/CumminsEngine.jpg

2.      Fuel:

a.      Bi-fuel system concept: a bi-fuel engine is a diesel engine that operates on gaseous fuels while maintaining some liquid fuel injection to provide a deliberate source for ignition.

b.       Biodiesel: biodiesel is a clean-burning alternative fuel, produced from domestic, renewable resources.

c.       Conventional diesel

d.      Low sulfur diesel: low sulfur diesel is classified as diesel with substantially lowered sulfur contents.

e.      Synthetic fuels: synthetic fuel is any liquid fuel obtained from coal or from natural gas. It can sometimes refer to fuels derived from other solids such as oil shale, tar sand, waste plastics, or from the fermentation of biomatter.

f.        Bio-gas: bio-gas typically refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas originated from biogenic material and is a type of biofuel.

g.      Natural gas: natural gas is a gas consisting primarily of methane. It is found associated with other fossil fuels, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs, and landfills. It is an important fuel source, a major feedstock for fertilizers, and a potent greenhouse gas.



3.      Unconventional Rig Power:

a.      Electric power from grid: using the electric power from grid sectors to power the rigs.


[Electric Power from Grids]

Referenced from http://www.gm-volt.com/i/grid.jpg


b.      Fuel Cells: fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert chemical energy in fuels into electrical energy directly, thereby promising power generation with high efficiency and low environmental impact.


[Fuel Cell]

Referenced from http://www.isecorp.com/gallery/albums/Components-APU/Fuel_Cells.sized.jpg


c.       Photovoltaic: photovoltaic is a cell containing material that converts solar radiation into direct current electricity.



Referenced from http://usgreenenergycenter.com/upload/image/energy-photovoltaic.jpg


d.      Wind turbines: a wind turbine is a rotating machine that converts the energy of wind into kinetic energy, which is then converted into electricity.


[Wind Turbines] Referenced from http://www.dust-inc.com/cms/sites/default/files/images/homepage/wind_turbine.jpg



4.      Energy Storage:

a.      Battery: A battery is a combination go electrochemical cells used to convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. There are many battery technologies currently in use or being developed, including: lead-acid, nickel cadmium, and nickel metal hydride. Batteries run on a limited number of charge/discharge cycle through a process of chemical reactions. Batteries have a limited life cycle with a degrading performance and eventually become hazardous to the environment.


[Lead-Acid Battery] Referenced from http://www.stoneyroads.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/lead-acid-battery.gif

b.      Capacitor banks: capacitor banks are capable of holding DC voltages for extended periods of time. They are capable of being charged and discharged an almost unlimited number of times and they have very long lifetimes, which reduced maintenance costs.


[Capacitor Bank] Referenced from http://www.elecsar.com/images/caps.jpg


c.       Electrolysis to Hydrogen for Energy Storage: Electrolysis of water into its components of hydrogen and oxygen can be considered an energy storage system since the hydrogen and oxygen can be stored for an extended time and then used in an engine or fuel cell to generate power on demand.

d.      Flywheels: High-speed flywheel systems are promising energy storage means for systems. Flywheels store kinetic energy in a high-speed rotor which can then be coupled with an electric machine to create a mechanical battery.



[Flywheels] Referenced from http://www.upei.ca/~physics/p261/projects/flywheel2/1097rosen_flywheel.gif



[Flywheel System]

Referenced from http://www.electricitystorage.org/images/uploads/photo_flywheels_1large.jpg



 Works Cited (Power Group)  

"Battery (electricity) -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 22 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battery_(electricity)>.

"Biogas -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 22 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biogas>.

"Internal Combustion Engine - Understanding the Internal Combustion Engine." Inventors. Web. 22 Feb. 2010. <http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blinternalcombustion.htm>.

"Lean-Burn Gas Generator Sets from Cummins Power Generation." Welcome to CumminsPower.com. Web. 22 Feb. 2010. <http://www.cumminspower.com/en/products/generators/leanburn/>.

"Natural gas -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 22 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_gas>.

"Photovoltaics -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 22 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photovoltaics>.

Rogers, J.D., Knoll, B., Haut, R., Mcdole, B. & Deskins, G., 2006. Assessments of Technologies for Environmentally Friendly Drilling Project: Land-Based Operations. Texas A&M University Environmentally Friendly Drilling report.

"Selective catalytic reduction -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 22 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selective_catalytic_reduction>.

"Ultra-low sulfur diesel -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 22 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultra-low_sulfur_diesel>.