Site & Rig Group:
1. Well Design:
a. Multiple directional drilling: Multiple directional drilling allows for drilling to occur in a non-vertical direction, in various angles of direction. Multiple directional drilling also allows for multiple wells to be drilled from the same vertical wellbore, minimizing the environmental impact of the well.
[Multiple Directional Drilling]
b. Multiple horizontal drilling: Multiple horizontal drilling allows for drilling occurring in a horizontal direction and also enables for multiple wells to be drilled from the same wellbore. Horizontal drilling is any wellbore that exceeds 80 degrees. Horizontal drilling is known to drastically increase production.
c. Single directional drilling: Directional drilling allows for drilling to occur in a non-vertical direction.
d. Single horizontal drilling: Horizontal drilling is any wellbore that exceeds 80 degrees and is known to drastically increase production of oil and gas.
e. Vertical drilling: Vertical drilling is any drilling that is only capable of drilling straight down.
[Vertical Drilling and Horizontal Drilling]
Referenced from http://www.stockinterview.com/Images/mitchell-area2.gif
2. Rig Type: A drilling rig is a machine which creates boreholes and shafts in the ground. They can be small and portable or huge and capable of drilling through thousands of meters into the Earth¡¯s crust.
a. Barge rig is designed for deep shelf drilling applications in shallow water, anywhere from 7 to 18 feet deep.
Referenced from http://www.seamarsvcs.com/Public/Index.asp?Page_ID=104
b. Casing drilling rig is envisioned to eliminate the use of a drill pipe as used in a conventional rotary drilling. The drillstring consists of a standard oil field casing that is used to simultaneously drill and case the well.
[Casing Drilling Rig]
c. Coiled tubing rig is used for underbalanced applications due to its well control system. Coiled tubing rig have a smaller footprint and weight and is a popular rig to use for drilling for natural gas.
d. Flex rig is a highly mobile rig that has the ¡°flexibility¡± to drill economically over anywhere from 8,000 to 18,000 feet. The flex rig is based on the modular design and features high mobility and large mud pumps.
e. Ideal rig is a drilling system designed for the North American land rig market. The rig features a modular mud system and a drawworks disk brake system that provides maximum control, enabling a smaller footprint of 129 feet by 306 feet.
f. LOC250 (CWD) is an innovative rig concept that is designed to take advantage of the casing while drilling technology to reduce costs as well as the environmental impact of drilling a well. This compact rig can be broken down into 17 modules that can be demobilized and rebuilt in another location within 24 hours.
g. Rapid rig is a single, fully automatic land drilling rig that has the pipe handling capability to rapidly pick up/lay down, make up/break out drill pipe and run casing and to mobilize/demobilize in approximately eight hours. The Rapid rig can be moved by 16 highway transport loads and has a smaller footprint of 185 feet by 98 feet.
h. Traditional rig are vintage rigs that were designed and constructed in the 1950s. These rigs have low mobility capabilities and it is laborious, time-consuming, dangerous, and costly to move a conventional rig.
i. Trailer Mounted rig is a rig that can is mounted to a trailer and is easily transported by the trailer.
j. Truck Mounted rig is a rig that can is mounted to a truck and is easily transported by truck.
3. Transportation is everything involved in moving either the person or goods from the origin to the destination. The goal of transportation is to provide for the movement of persons and goods from one place to another safely and efficiently, with minimum impact on the environment. The transportation system is very diverse, with differing functional characteristics depending on the medium of the movement (ground, air, water), the particular technology used, and the demand for movement in the particular medium. One component of transportation consists of the types of vehicles being used, such as:
a. Conventional Diesel Truck: a type of vehicle that is fueled by diesel. A diesel engine is a type of internal-combustion engine where the ignition is brought about by heat resulting from air compression. They operate at high compression ratios and convert a large percentage of the fuel's available energy into usable work. Diesel engines' higher fuel efficiency generally lowers the carbon dioxide emissions that contribute to the greenhouse effect.
Referenced from http://www.interiorcanconnect.com/images/new_truck_1.jpg
b. Conventional Diesel Truck with noise suppressor: a diesel truck with noise reductions that allows to minimize noise pollution
c. Low Sulfur Diesel Truck with tier III engine: a type of diesel truck that is fueled by diesel fuel with substantially lowered sulfur contents. The lowered sulfur content in the diesel reduces the emissions of particulate matter from diesel engines. Diesel trucks with tier III engines are required to meet emission standards set by the EPA concerning NMHC + NOx.
d. Low Sulfur Diesel Truck with tier III engine and noise suppressor: a diesel truck that reduces the emissions of particulate matter from the engine and minimizes noise pollution.
e. Helicopter: a helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by one or more engine driven rotors. This allows helicopters to take off and land vertically along, to hover, and to fly forwards, backwards, and laterally.
Referenced from http://www.constructionhelicopter.com/img/banner_main.jpg
f. Helicopter with noise suppressor: the source of helicopter noise comes from the rotor, the engine, and the transmission. The thickness of the rotor blades, the loading noise, the blade-vortex interaction (BVI), the broadband noise, the high-speed impulsive (HSI) noise, and tail rotor noise all contribute to the noise that helicopters produce. The placement, design and removal of the tail-rotor can all reduce the amount of noise that results from the helicopter.
g. Hovercraft: a hovercraft, also known as air-cushioned vehicles, operates by using fans to push air under the vehicle and trap that air with a skirt. The hovercraft is lifted above the ground and the skirt of the hovercraft is primarily the only part of the vehicle that is in contact with the ground. The amphibious vehicle can travel over water, land, ice, snow, and swamps and is considered to be a transportation mode that will not permanently harm the ecology of the area it travels.
h. Hovercraft with noise suppressor: an adverse effect of hovercraft transportation is the noise pollution that hovercrafts produce. A noise suppressor can be added to reduce the noise level of the hovercraft to a noise level that is produced by a typical truck or bus.
Referenced from http://www.wired.com/images_blogs/autopia/2009/10/hovercraft.jpg
i. Mattracks: Mattrack is a patented track system that can convert a typical wheeled vehicle to a tracked vehicle. Mattracks reduce the ground pressure of a wheeled vehicle and can effectively travel through snow, slush, mud, sand, swamps and tundra conditions.
j. Mattracks with noise suppressor: a Mattrack designed to minimize noise pollution,
k. Rolligon: Rolligon vehicles are used to transport heavy loads, personnel, products, or equipment in sensitive areas. Rolligon vehicles consist of low-pressure, high-flotation tires that distribute the weight over a large area with a ground pressure of approximately 4 psi or less. Rolligon vehicles can operated in soft ground conditions, extremely rugged terrain or environmental conditions that are too harsh or sensitive for conventional trucks.
l. Rolligon with noise suppressor: a Rolligon designed to minimize noise pollution.
Referenced from http://www.coralmarineconstruction.com/xxxxx/Rolligon1_big.jpg
4. Access Roads: The medium in which movement occurs. The access roads are created to access well sites and transport heavy pieces of equipment and supplies in and out of the rig site.
a. Board road is a temporary road system constructed out of boards.
b. Bridge decks consist of the decking of a timber bridge and are best used to cross small wetlands.
Referenced from http://www.bridgebuilders.com/images/sub_splash_1.jpg
c. Cable and wood
d. Corduroy crossings are built from residues such as brush or slash; small, low-value logs; or mill slabs. Corduroy spreads a load over the length of the log or slab, increasing the load-bearing area.
e. DURA-BASE is a new interlocking mat that is constructed from high-density polyethylene. DURA-BASE is used for temporary road systems and construction platforms placed over soft soils and environmentally sensitive areas.
f. Expanded metal grating is made from non-galvanized steel. This light and inexpensive technology provides good traction and can be used to build crossings by placing grating sections in the wheel path.
[Expanded Metal Grating]
g. Gravel road is a road system paved with gravel.
Referenced from http://personal.eunet.fi/pp/halo/mp/muotka/GravelRoad_305.jpg
h. HexaDeck is a portable roadway and heavy-duty flooring system. HexaDeck can be used to create permanent or temporary road systems for vehicles, equipment, and pedestrians. HexaDeck consists of interlocking hexagonal tiles that result in a very durable pathway for multi-uses.
Referenced from http://www.afencecompany.com/p_HexaDeckBeach5.jpg
i. Pole rail crossings can be built on –site from straight hardwood poles cut from local trees. They are laid parallel to the direction of travel below each wheel.
j. PVC or HDPE pipe mats are constructed by cabling together pipes to form mats of varying length.
[PVC or HDPE Pipe Mats]
k. Recycled drill cutting road base
l. Roll-out road
m. Roverdeck is a lightweight roll out roadway system that can be rapidly deployed for vehicle access over sand, dirt, and mud. This system can be used for environmentally sensitive areas as well.
n. Tire mats are constructed by interconnecting tire sidewalls and its dimensions can be modified to fit the soil and the situation.
Referenced from http://www.findagreenstore.com/ATT00065.jpg
o. Wood mats are made from logs or sawn hardwood and the individual pieces are cabled together to make a single-layer crossing.
p. Wood panels are stronger, larger versions of shipping pallets. They are reversible and easier to repair.
5. Site Preparation: Once the drill site has been selected and surveyed, a contractor or contractors will move in with equipment to prepare the location. If necessary, the site will be cleared and leveled. A large pit will be constructed to contain water for drilling operations and for the disposal of drill cuttings and other waste. A small drilling rig, referred to as a dry hole differ, will be used to start the main hole.
a. Aluminum Modules and Drilled Shaft: An aluminum module is an independent unit that serves a specific function and is combined with other modules to complete a modular design. Drilled shafts are deep foundation elements that can be used to support rig structures. Drilled shafts, also known as, cast-in-drilled hole (CIDH) piles, caissons, drilled piers or bored piles are used for deep foundation solutions to high axial and/or lateral loads challenges.
Referenced from http://www.casefoundation.com/images/Services-DrilledShaft.jpg
b. Aluminum Modules and Driven Piles: An aluminum module is an independent unit that serves a specific function and is combined with other modules to complete a modular design. Driven piles are structural columns driven into the soil for the transfer of loads through weak soil layers to a suitable bearing layer of soil or rock. They are suitable foundations for all types of land-based and marine-based structures. Their choice over other deep foundation methods is a matter of economic and site-specific factors.
Referenced from http://www.kurt-fredrich.co.uk/images/driven1.gif
c. Aluminum Modules and Spread footing: An aluminum module is an independent unit that serves a specific function and is combined with other modules to complete a modular design. Spread footing is a wide shallow footing usually consisting of strips or pads of reinforced concrete or other materials which transfer the loads from walls and columns to the soil or bedrock.
Referenced from http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/skyscraper-diagram1.jpg
d. Board location
e. Caliche is a sedimentary rock, a hardened deposit of calcium carbonate.
Referenced from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Caliche-5731.jpg
f. Cement pad is a square or rectangular slab consisting of hardened cement.
g. Compacted fill material typically consists of compacted subsoil, free of organic matter, used to fill a depression or hole, or used to create a mound, changing the grade or elevation of the real site.
h. Compacted native material is the soil or dirt material native to the site that is compacted to create a durable foundation.
i. DURA-BASE is a new interlocking mat that is constructed from high-density polyethylene. DURA-BASE is used for temporary road systems and construction platforms placed over soft soils and environmentally sensitive areas.
j. Gravel pad is a temporary foundation slab consisting of gravel as a method to reduce the environmental impact of drills on the surrounding area.
[Gravel Pads on Drilling Site]
Ice pad (
l. Just level out is a method that consists of just leveling out the land where the site is located.
m. Multiple well pad < 10 ft. well spacing: consist of multiple drills on one site pad, each drill spaced less than ten feet apart.
n. Multiple well pad 10-20 ft. well spacing: consist of multiple drills on one site pad, each drill spaced between ten to twenty feet apart.
[Multiple Well Pad]
Referenced from http://www.citizenscampaign.org/images/multi_well_pad_site.jpg
o. Piling is a column of wood, steel, or concrete that is driven into the ground to provide support for a structure.
Referenced from http://www.keller-ge.co.uk/images/cms/piling1.jpg
p. Recycle drill cuttings is soil material removed from the earth during the drilling process that is reused for other purposes.
6. Noise Reduction Facility:
a. Construct buildings: In order to minimize the noise pollution at the drilling site, it is proposed that buildings are constructed on the site to act as a sound barrier.
b. Construct walls: In order to minimize the noise pollution at the drilling site, it is proposed that walls are constructed on the site to act as a sound barrier.
Works Cited (Site & Rig Group)
"RIGZONE - How Does Directional Drilling Work?" RIGZONE - Your Gateway to the Oil & Gas Industry. Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://www.rigzone.com/training/insight.asp?insight_id=295&c_id=1>.
"Diesel engine -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diesel_engine>.
"Helicopter -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helicopters>.
Rogers, J.D., Knoll, B., Haut, R., Mcdole, B. & Deskins, G., 2006. Assessments of Technologies for Environmentally Friendly Drilling Project: Land-Based Operations. Texas A&M University Environmentally Friendly Drilling report.
"Ultra-low sulfur diesel -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultra-low_sulfur_diesel>.
"Arctic Power - Arctic National Wildlife Refuge - Today's drilling leaves a small footprint." Arctic Power - Arctic National Wildlife Refuge - Home. Web. 15 Feb. 2010. <http://www.anwr.org/Technology/Today-s-drilling-leaves-a-small-footprint.php>.
"Caliche (mineral) -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 15 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caliche_(mineral)>.
"Drill-Site Preparation." School Science Project Information. Web. 11 Feb. 2010.
"Fill dirt -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 15 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fill_dirt>.
"Modular design -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 15 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modular_design>.
"Piling - definition of piling by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia." Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary. Web. 15 Feb. 2010. <http://www.thefreedictionary.com/piling>.
"Shallow foundation -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 15 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shallow_foundation>.
"Spread footing: Definition from Answers.com." Answers.com: Wiki Q&A combined with free online dictionary, thesaurus, and encyclopedias. Web. 15 Feb. 2010. <http://www.answers.com/topic/spread-footing>.
"Barge Rigs." Home. Web. 15 Feb. 2010. <http://www.seamarsvcs.com/Public/Index.asp?Page_ID=104>.
"Drilling rig -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 15 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drilling_rig>.